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WebDriver

Installation

If you use Codeception installed using composer, install this module with the following command:

composer require --dev codeception/module-webdriver

Alternatively, you can enable WebDriver module in suite configuration file and run

codecept init upgrade4

This module was bundled with Codeception 2 and 3, but since version 4 it is necessary to install it separately.
Some modules are bundled with PHAR files.
Warning. Using PHAR file and composer in the same project can cause unexpected errors.

Description

Run tests in real browsers using the W3C WebDriver protocol. There are multiple ways of running browser tests using WebDriver:

  • Java is required
  • NodeJS is required

The fastest way to get started is to Install and launch Selenium using selenium-standalone NodeJS package.

Launch selenium standalone in separate console window:

selenium-standalone start

Update configuration in acceptance.suite.yml:

modules:
   enabled:
      - WebDriver:
         url: 'http://localhost/'
         browser: chrome # 'chrome' or 'firefox'

Headless Chrome Browser

To enable headless mode (launch tests without showing a window) for Chrome browser using Selenium use this config in acceptance.suite.yml:

modules:
   enabled:
      - WebDriver:
         url: 'http://localhost/'
         browser: chrome
         capabilities:
            chromeOptions:
               args: ["--headless", "--disable-gpu"]

Headless Selenium in Docker

Docker can ship Selenium Server with all its dependencies and browsers inside a single container. Running tests inside Docker is as easy as pulling official selenium image and starting a container with Chrome:

docker run --net=host selenium/standalone-chrome

By using --net=host allow Selenium to access local websites.

Local Chrome and/or Firefox

Tests can be executed directly through ChromeDriver or GeckoDriver (for Firefox). Consider using this option if you don’t plan to use Selenium.

ChromeDriver

  • Download and install ChromeDriver
  • Launch ChromeDriver in a separate console window: chromedriver --url-base=/wd/hub.

Configuration in acceptance.suite.yml:

modules:
   enabled:
      - WebDriver:
         browser: chrome
         url: 'http://localhost/'
         window_size: 2000x1000
         port: 9515
         capabilities:
             chromeOptions:
                 args: ["--headless", "--disable-gpu"] # Run Chrome in headless mode
                 prefs:
                     download.default_directory: "..."

See here for additional Chrome options

GeckoDriver

  • GeckoDriver must be installed
  • Start GeckoDriver in a separate console window: geckodriver.

Configuration in acceptance.suite.yml:

modules:
   enabled:
      - WebDriver:
         browser: firefox
         url: 'http://localhost/'
         window_size: 2000x1000
         path: ''
         capabilities:
             acceptInsecureCerts: true # allow self-signed certificates
             moz:firefoxOptions:
                 args: ["-headless"] # Run Firefox in headless mode
                 prefs:
                     intl.accept_languages: "de-AT" # Set HTTP-Header `Accept-Language: de-AT` for requests

See here for Firefox capabilities

Cloud Testing

Cloud Testing services can run your WebDriver tests in the cloud. In case you want to test a local site or site behind a firewall you should use a tunnel application provided by a service.

SauceLabs

  1. Create an account at SauceLabs.com to get your username and access key
  2. In the module configuration use the format username:access_key@ondemand.saucelabs.com’ for host
  3. Configure platform under capabilities to define the Operating System
  4. run a tunnel app if your site can’t be accessed from Internet
    modules:
       enabled:
          - WebDriver:
             url: http://mysite.com
             host: '<username>:<access key>@ondemand.saucelabs.com'
             port: 80
             browser: chrome
             capabilities:
                 platform: 'Windows 10'

BrowserStack

  1. Create an account at BrowserStack to get your username and access key
  2. In the module configuration use the format username:access_key@hub.browserstack.com’ for host
  3. Configure os and os_version under capabilities to define the operating System
  4. If your site is available only locally or via VPN you should use a tunnel app. In this case add browserstack.local capability and set it to true.
    modules:
       enabled:
          - WebDriver:
             url: http://mysite.com
             host: '<username>:<access key>@hub.browserstack.com'
             port: 80
             browser: chrome
             capabilities:
                 os: Windows
                 os_version: 10
                 browserstack.local: true # for local testing

LambdaTest

  1. Create an account at LambdaTest to get your username and access key
  2. In the module configuration use the format username:access key@hub.lambdatest.com’ for host
  3. Configure os and os_version under capabilities to define the operating System
  4. If your site is available only locally or via VPN you should use a tunnel app. In this case add capabilities.setCapability(“tunnel”,true);.
   modules:
 enabled:
   - WebDriver:
      url: http://mysite.com
      host: '<username>:<access key>@hub.lambdatest.com'
      build: <your build name>
      name: <your test name>
      port: 80
      browser: chrome
      capabilities:
          os: Windows
          os_version: 10
          browser_version: 86
          resolution: 1366x768
          tunnel: true # for local testing

TestingBot

  1. Create an account at TestingBot to get your key and secret
  2. In the module configuration use the format key:secret@hub.testingbot.com’ for host
  3. Configure platform under capabilities to define the Operating System
  4. Run TestingBot Tunnel if your site can’t be accessed from Internet
    modules:
       enabled:
          - WebDriver:
             url: http://mysite.com
             host: '<key>:<secret>@hub.testingbot.com'
             port: 80
             browser: chrome
             capabilities:
                 platform: Windows 10

Configuration

  • url required - Base URL for your app (amOnPage opens URLs relative to this setting).
  • browser required - Browser to launch.
  • host - Selenium server host (127.0.0.1 by default).
  • port - Selenium server port (4444 by default).
  • restart - Set to false (default) to use the same browser window for all tests, or set to true to create a new window for each test. In any case, when all tests are finished the browser window is closed.
  • start - Autostart a browser for tests. Can be disabled if browser session is started with _initializeSession inside a Helper.
  • window_size - Initial window size. Set to maximize or a dimension in the format 640x480.
  • clear_cookies - Set to false to keep cookies, or set to true (default) to delete all cookies between tests.
  • wait (default: 0 seconds) - Whenever element is required and is not on page, wait for n seconds to find it before fail.
  • capabilities - Sets Selenium desired capabilities. Should be a key-value array.
  • connection_timeout - timeout for opening a connection to remote selenium server (30 seconds by default).
  • request_timeout - timeout for a request to return something from remote selenium server (30 seconds by default).
  • pageload_timeout - amount of time to wait for a page load to complete before throwing an error (default 0 seconds).
  • http_proxy - sets http proxy server url for testing a remote server.
  • http_proxy_port - sets http proxy server port
  • ssl_proxy - sets ssl(https) proxy server url for testing a remote server.
  • ssl_proxy_port - sets ssl(https) proxy server port
  • debug_log_entries - how many selenium entries to print with debugWebDriverLogs or on fail (0 by default).
  • log_js_errors - Set to true to include possible JavaScript to HTML report, or set to false (default) to deactivate.
  • webdriver_proxy - sets http proxy to tunnel requests to the remote Selenium WebDriver through
  • webdriver_proxy_port - sets http proxy server port to tunnel requests to the remote Selenium WebDriver through

Example (acceptance.suite.yml)

    modules:
       enabled:
          - WebDriver:
             url: 'http://localhost/'
             browser: firefox
             window_size: 1024x768
             capabilities:
                 unexpectedAlertBehaviour: 'accept'
                 firefox_profile: '~/firefox-profiles/codeception-profile.zip.b64'

Loading Parts from other Modules

While all Codeception modules are designed to work stand-alone, it’s still possible to load several modules at once. To use e.g. the Asserts module in your acceptance tests, just load it like this in your acceptance.suite.yml:

modules:
    enabled:
        - WebDriver
        - Asserts

However, when loading a framework module (e.g. Symfony) like this, it would lead to a conflict: When you call $I->amOnPage(), Codeception wouldn’t know if you want to access the page using WebDriver’s amOnPage(), or Symfony’s amOnPage(). That’s why possibly conflicting modules are separated into “parts”. Here’s how to load just the “services” part from e.g. Symfony:

modules:
    enabled:
        - WebDriver
        - Symfony:
            part: services

To find out which parts each module has, look at the “Parts” header on the module’s page.

Usage

Locating Elements

Most methods in this module that operate on a DOM element (e.g. click) accept a locator as the first argument, which can be either a string or an array.

If the locator is an array, it should have a single element, with the key signifying the locator type (id, name, css, xpath, link, or class) and the value being the locator itself. This is called a “strict” locator. Examples:

  • ['id' => 'foo'] matches <div id="foo">
  • ['name' => 'foo'] matches <div name="foo">
  • ['css' => 'input[type=input][value=foo]'] matches <input type="input" value="foo">
  • ['xpath' => "//input[@type='submit'][contains(@value, 'foo')]"] matches <input type="submit" value="foobar">
  • ['link' => 'Click here'] matches <a href="google.com">Click here</a>
  • ['class' => 'foo'] matches <div class="foo">

Writing good locators can be tricky. The Mozilla team has written an excellent guide titled Writing reliable locators for Selenium and WebDriver tests.

If you prefer, you may also pass a string for the locator. This is called a “fuzzy” locator. In this case, Codeception uses a a variety of heuristics (depending on the exact method called) to determine what element you’re referring to. For example, here’s the heuristic used for the submitForm method:

  1. Does the locator look like an ID selector (e.g. “#foo”)? If so, try to find a form matching that ID.
  2. If nothing found, check if locator looks like a CSS selector. If so, run it.
  3. If nothing found, check if locator looks like an XPath expression. If so, run it.
  4. Throw an ElementNotFound exception.

Be warned that fuzzy locators can be significantly slower than strict locators. Especially if you use Selenium WebDriver with wait (aka implicit wait) option. In the example above if you set wait to 5 seconds and use XPath string as fuzzy locator, submitForm method will wait for 5 seconds at each step. That means 5 seconds finding the form by ID, another 5 seconds finding by CSS until it finally tries to find the form by XPath). If speed is a concern, it’s recommended you stick with explicitly specifying the locator type via the array syntax.

Get Scenario Metadata

You can inject \Codeception\Scenario into your test to get information about the current configuration:

use Codeception\Scenario
public function myTest(AcceptanceTester $I, Scenario $scenario)
{
    if ('firefox' === $scenario->current('browser')) {
        // ...
    }
}

See Get Scenario Metadata for more information on $scenario.

Public Properties

  • webDriver - instance of \Facebook\WebDriver\Remote\RemoteWebDriver. Can be accessed from Helper classes for complex WebDriver interactions.
// inside Helper class
$this->getModule('WebDriver')->webDriver->getKeyboard()->sendKeys('hello, webdriver');

Actions

_backupSession

hidden API method, expected to be used from Helper classes

Returns current WebDriver session for saving

_capabilities

hidden API method, expected to be used from Helper classes

Change capabilities of WebDriver. Should be executed before starting a new browser session. This method expects a function to be passed which returns array or WebDriver Desired Capabilities object. Additional Chrome options (like adding extensions) can be passed as well.

<?php // in helper
public function _before(TestInterface $test)
{
    $this->getModule('WebDriver')->_capabilities(function($currentCapabilities) {
        // or new \Facebook\WebDriver\Remote\DesiredCapabilities();
        return \Facebook\WebDriver\Remote\DesiredCapabilities::firefox();
    });
}

to make this work load \Helper\Acceptance before WebDriver in acceptance.suite.yml:

modules:
    enabled:
        - \Helper\Acceptance
        - WebDriver

For instance, BrowserStack cloud service may require a test name to be set in capabilities. This is how it can be done via _capabilities method from Helper\Acceptance:

<?php // inside Helper\Acceptance
public function _before(TestInterface $test)
{
     $name = $test->getMetadata()->getName();
     $this->getModule('WebDriver')->_capabilities(function($currentCapabilities) use ($name) {
         $currentCapabilities['name'] = $name;
         return $currentCapabilities;
     });
}

In this case, please ensure that \Helper\Acceptance is loaded before WebDriver so new capabilities could be applied.

_closeSession

hidden API method, expected to be used from Helper classes

Manually closes current WebDriver session.

<?php
$this->getModule('WebDriver')->_closeSession();

// close a specific session
$webDriver = $this->getModule('WebDriver')->webDriver;
$this->getModule('WebDriver')->_closeSession($webDriver);
  • param RemoteWebDriver|null $webDriver a specific webdriver session instance

_findClickable

hidden API method, expected to be used from Helper classes

Locates a clickable element.

Use it in Helpers or GroupObject or Extension classes:

<?php
$module = $this->getModule('WebDriver');
$page = $module->webDriver;

// search a link or button on a page
$el = $module->_findClickable($page, 'Click Me');

// search a link or button within an element
$topBar = $module->_findElements('.top-bar')[0];
$el = $module->_findClickable($topBar, 'Click Me');
  • param WebDriverSearchContext $page WebDriver instance or an element to search within
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $link A link text or locator to click

_findElements

hidden API method, expected to be used from Helper classes

Locates element using available Codeception locator types:

  • XPath
  • CSS
  • Strict Locator

Use it in Helpers or GroupObject or Extension classes:

<?php
$els = $this->getModule('WebDriver')->_findElements('.items');
$els = $this->getModule('WebDriver')->_findElements(['name' => 'username']);

$editLinks = $this->getModule('WebDriver')->_findElements(['link' => 'Edit']);
// now you can iterate over $editLinks and check that all them have valid hrefs

WebDriver module returns Facebook\WebDriver\Remote\RemoteWebElement instances PhpBrowser and Framework modules return Symfony\Component\DomCrawler\Crawler instances

_getCurrentUri

hidden API method, expected to be used from Helper classes

Uri of currently opened page. @throws ModuleException

_getUrl

hidden API method, expected to be used from Helper classes

Returns URL of a host.

@throws ModuleConfigException

_initializeSession

hidden API method, expected to be used from Helper classes

Manually starts a new browser session.

<?php
$this->getModule('WebDriver')->_initializeSession();

_loadSession

hidden API method, expected to be used from Helper classes

Loads current RemoteWebDriver instance as a session

  • param RemoteWebDriver $session

_restart

hidden API method, expected to be used from Helper classes

Restarts a web browser. Can be used with _reconfigure to open browser with different configuration

<?php
// inside a Helper
$this->getModule('WebDriver')->_restart(); // just restart
$this->getModule('WebDriver')->_restart(['browser' => $browser]); // reconfigure + restart

_savePageSource

hidden API method, expected to be used from Helper classes

Saves HTML source of a page to a file

_saveScreenshot

hidden API method, expected to be used from Helper classes

Saves screenshot of current page to a file

$this->getModule('WebDriver')->_saveScreenshot(codecept_output_dir().'screenshot_1.png');

acceptPopup

Accepts the active JavaScript native popup window, as created by window.alert|window.confirm|window.prompt. Don’t confuse popups with modal windows, as created by various libraries.

amOnPage

Opens the page for the given relative URI.

<?php
// opens front page
$I->amOnPage('/');
// opens /register page
$I->amOnPage('/register');

amOnSubdomain

Changes the subdomain for the ‘url’ configuration parameter. Does not open a page; use amOnPage for that.

<?php
// If config is: 'https://mysite.com'
// or config is: 'https://www.mysite.com'
// or config is: 'https://company.mysite.com'

$I->amOnSubdomain('user');
$I->amOnPage('/');
// moves to https://user.mysite.com/

amOnUrl

Open web page at the given absolute URL and sets its hostname as the base host.

<?php
$I->amOnUrl('https://codeception.com');
$I->amOnPage('/quickstart'); // moves to https://codeception.com/quickstart

appendField

Append the given text to the given element. Can also add a selection to a select box.

<?php
$I->appendField('#mySelectbox', 'SelectValue');
$I->appendField('#myTextField', 'appended');
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $field
  • param string $value @throws ElementNotFound

attachFile

Attaches a file relative to the Codeception _data directory to the given file upload field.

<?php
// file is stored in 'tests/_data/prices.xls'
$I->attachFile('input[@type="file"]', 'prices.xls');

cancelPopup

Dismisses the active JavaScript popup, as created by window.alert, window.confirm, or window.prompt.

checkOption

Ticks a checkbox. For radio buttons, use the selectOption method instead.

<?php
$I->checkOption('#agree');

clearField

Clears given field which isn’t empty.

<?php
$I->clearField('#username');
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $field

click

Perform a click on a link or a button, given by a locator. If a fuzzy locator is given, the page will be searched for a button, link, or image matching the locator string. For buttons, the “value” attribute, “name” attribute, and inner text are searched. For links, the link text is searched. For images, the “alt” attribute and inner text of any parent links are searched.

The second parameter is a context (CSS or XPath locator) to narrow the search.

Note that if the locator matches a button of type submit, the form will be submitted.

<?php
// simple link
$I->click('Logout');
// button of form
$I->click('Submit');
// CSS button
$I->click('#form input[type=submit]');
// XPath
$I->click('//form/*[@type="submit"]');
// link in context
$I->click('Logout', '#nav');
// using strict locator
$I->click(['link' => 'Login']);
  • param string|array $link

clickWithLeftButton

Performs click with the left mouse button on an element. If the first parameter null then the offset is relative to the actual mouse position. If the second and third parameters are given, then the mouse is moved to an offset of the element’s top-left corner. Otherwise, the mouse is moved to the center of the element.

<?php
$I->clickWithLeftButton(['css' => '.checkout']);
$I->clickWithLeftButton(null, 20, 50);
$I->clickWithLeftButton(['css' => '.checkout'], 20, 50);
  • param null|string|array|WebDriverBy $cssOrXPath css or xpath of the web element (body by default).

@throws ElementNotFound

clickWithRightButton

Performs contextual click with the right mouse button on an element. If the first parameter null then the offset is relative to the actual mouse position. If the second and third parameters are given, then the mouse is moved to an offset of the element’s top-left corner. Otherwise, the mouse is moved to the center of the element.

<?php
$I->clickWithRightButton(['css' => '.checkout']);
$I->clickWithRightButton(null, 20, 50);
$I->clickWithRightButton(['css' => '.checkout'], 20, 50);
  • param null|string|array|WebDriverBy $cssOrXPath css or xpath of the web element (body by default). @throws ElementNotFound

closeTab

Closes current browser tab and switches to previous active tab.

<?php
$I->closeTab();

debugWebDriverLogs

Print out latest Selenium Logs in debug mode

deleteSessionSnapshot

Deletes session snapshot.

See saveSessionSnapshot

dontSee

Checks that the current page doesn’t contain the text specified (case insensitive). Give a locator as the second parameter to match a specific region.

<?php
$I->dontSee('Login');                         // I can suppose user is already logged in
$I->dontSee('Sign Up','h1');                  // I can suppose it's not a signup page
$I->dontSee('Sign Up','//body/h1');           // with XPath
$I->dontSee('Sign Up', ['css' => 'body h1']); // with strict CSS locator

Note that the search is done after stripping all HTML tags from the body, so $I->dontSee('strong') will fail on strings like:

  • <p>I am Stronger than thou</p>
  • <script>document.createElement('strong');</script>

But will ignore strings like:

  • <strong>Home</strong>
  • <div class="strong">Home</strong>
  • <!-- strong -->

For checking the raw source code, use seeInSource().

  • param array|string $selector optional

dontSeeCheckboxIsChecked

Check that the specified checkbox is unchecked.

<?php
$I->dontSeeCheckboxIsChecked('#agree'); // I suppose user didn't agree to terms
$I->seeCheckboxIsChecked('#signup_form input[type=checkbox]'); // I suppose user didn't check the first checkbox in form.

dontSeeCookie

Checks that there isn’t a cookie with the given name. You can set additional cookie params like domain, path as array passed in last argument.

  • return mixed|void

dontSeeCurrentUrlEquals

Checks that the current URL doesn’t equal the given string. Unlike dontSeeInCurrentUrl, this only matches the full URL.

<?php
// current url is not root
$I->dontSeeCurrentUrlEquals('/');

dontSeeCurrentUrlMatches

Checks that current url doesn’t match the given regular expression.

<?php
// to match root url
$I->dontSeeCurrentUrlMatches('~^/users/(\d+)~');

dontSeeElement

Checks that the given element is invisible or not present on the page. You can also specify expected attributes of this element.

<?php
$I->dontSeeElement('.error');
$I->dontSeeElement('//form/input[1]');
$I->dontSeeElement('input', ['name' => 'login']);
$I->dontSeeElement('input', ['value' => '123456']);

dontSeeElementInDOM

Opposite of seeElementInDOM.

  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $selector

dontSeeInCurrentUrl

Checks that the current URI doesn’t contain the given string.

<?php
$I->dontSeeInCurrentUrl('/users/');

dontSeeInField

Checks that an input field or textarea doesn’t contain the given value. For fuzzy locators, the field is matched by label text, CSS and XPath.

<?php
$I->dontSeeInField('Body','Type your comment here');
$I->dontSeeInField('form textarea[name=body]','Type your comment here');
$I->dontSeeInField('form input[type=hidden]','hidden_value');
$I->dontSeeInField('#searchform input','Search');
$I->dontSeeInField('//form/*[@name=search]','Search');
$I->dontSeeInField(['name' => 'search'], 'Search');
  • param string|array $field

dontSeeInFormFields

Checks if the array of form parameters (name => value) are not set on the form matched with the passed selector.

<?php
$I->dontSeeInFormFields('form[name=myform]', [
     'input1' => 'non-existent value',
     'input2' => 'other non-existent value',
]);

To check that an element hasn’t been assigned any one of many values, an array can be passed as the value:

<?php
$I->dontSeeInFormFields('.form-class', [
     'fieldName' => [
         'This value shouldn\'t be set',
         'And this value shouldn\'t be set',
     ],
]);

Additionally, checkbox values can be checked with a boolean.

<?php
$I->dontSeeInFormFields('#form-id', [
     'checkbox1' => true,        // fails if checked
     'checkbox2' => false,       // fails if unchecked
]);

dontSeeInPageSource

Checks that the page source doesn’t contain the given string.

dontSeeInPopup

Checks that the active JavaScript popup, as created by window.alert|window.confirm|window.prompt, does NOT contain the given string.

@throws ModuleException

dontSeeInSource

Checks that the current page contains the given string in its raw source code.

<?php
$I->dontSeeInSource('<h1>Green eggs &amp; ham</h1>');

dontSeeInTitle

Checks that the page title does not contain the given string.

  • return mixed|void

Checks that the page doesn’t contain a link with the given string. If the second parameter is given, only links with a matching “href” attribute will be checked.

<?php
$I->dontSeeLink('Logout'); // I suppose user is not logged in
$I->dontSeeLink('Checkout now', '/store/cart.php');

dontSeeOptionIsSelected

Checks that the given option is not selected.

<?php
$I->dontSeeOptionIsSelected('#form input[name=payment]', 'Visa');
  • return mixed|void

doubleClick

Performs a double click on an element matched by CSS or XPath.

  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $cssOrXPath @throws ElementNotFound

dragAndDrop

Performs a simple mouse drag-and-drop operation.

<?php
$I->dragAndDrop('#drag', '#drop');
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $source (CSS ID or XPath)
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $target (CSS ID or XPath)

executeAsyncJS

Executes asynchronous JavaScript. A callback should be executed by JavaScript to exit from a script. Callback is passed as a last element in arguments array. Additional arguments can be passed as array in second parameter.

js
// wait for 1200 milliseconds my running `setTimeout`
* $I->executeAsyncJS('setTimeout(arguments[0], 1200)');

$seconds = 1200; // or seconds are passed as argument
$I->executeAsyncJS('setTimeout(arguments[1], arguments[0])', [$seconds]);
  • param array $arguments

executeInSelenium

Low-level API method. If Codeception commands are not enough, this allows you to use Selenium WebDriver methods directly:

$I->executeInSelenium(function(\Facebook\WebDriver\Remote\RemoteWebDriver $webdriver) {
  $webdriver->get('https://google.com');
});

This runs in the context of the RemoteWebDriver class. Try not to use this command on a regular basis. If Codeception lacks a feature you need, please implement it and submit a patch.

  • param Closure $function

executeJS

Executes custom JavaScript.

This example uses jQuery to get a value and assigns that value to a PHP variable:

<?php
$myVar = $I->executeJS('return $("#myField").val()');

// additional arguments can be passed as array
// Example shows `Hello World` alert:
$I->executeJS("window.alert(arguments[0])", ['Hello world']);
  • param array $arguments

fillField

Fills a text field or textarea with the given string.

<?php
$I->fillField("//input[@type='text']", "Hello World!");
$I->fillField(['name' => 'email'], '[email protected]');

grabAttributeFrom

Grabs the value of the given attribute value from the given element. Fails if element is not found.

<?php
$I->grabAttributeFrom('#tooltip', 'title');

grabCookie

Grabs a cookie value. You can set additional cookie params like domain, path in array passed as last argument. If the cookie is set by an ajax request (XMLHttpRequest), there might be some delay caused by the browser, so try $I->wait(0.1).

grabFromCurrentUrl

Executes the given regular expression against the current URI and returns the first capturing group. If no parameters are provided, the full URI is returned.

<?php
$user_id = $I->grabFromCurrentUrl('~^/user/(\d+)/~');
$uri = $I->grabFromCurrentUrl();

grabMultiple

Grabs either the text content, or attribute values, of nodes matched by $cssOrXpath and returns them as an array.

<a href="#first">First</a>
<a href="#second">Second</a>
<a href="#third">Third</a>
<?php
// would return ['First', 'Second', 'Third']
$aLinkText = $I->grabMultiple('a');

// would return ['#first', '#second', '#third']
$aLinks = $I->grabMultiple('a', 'href');
  • return string[]

grabPageSource

Grabs current page source code.

@throws ModuleException if no page was opened.

  • return string Current page source code.

grabTextFrom

Finds and returns the text contents of the given element. If a fuzzy locator is used, the element is found using CSS, XPath, and by matching the full page source by regular expression.

<?php
$heading = $I->grabTextFrom('h1');
$heading = $I->grabTextFrom('descendant-or-self::h1');
$value = $I->grabTextFrom('~<input value=(.*?)]~sgi'); // match with a regex

grabValueFrom

Finds the value for the given form field. If a fuzzy locator is used, the field is found by field name, CSS, and XPath.

<?php
$name = $I->grabValueFrom('Name');
$name = $I->grabValueFrom('input[name=username]');
$name = $I->grabValueFrom('descendant-or-self::form/descendant::input[@name = 'username']');
$name = $I->grabValueFrom(['name' => 'username']);

loadSessionSnapshot

Loads cookies from a saved snapshot. Allows to reuse same session across tests without additional login.

See saveSessionSnapshot

makeElementScreenshot

Takes a screenshot of an element of the current window and saves it to tests/_output/debug.

<?php
$I->amOnPage('/user/edit');
$I->makeElementScreenshot('#dialog', 'edit_page');
// saved to: tests/_output/debug/edit_page.png
$I->makeElementScreenshot('#dialog');
// saved to: tests/_output/debug/2017-05-26_14-24-11_4b3403665fea6.png
  • param WebDriverBy|array $selector

makeHtmlSnapshot

Use this method within an interactive pause to save the HTML source code of the current page.

<?php
$I->makeHtmlSnapshot('edit_page');
// saved to: tests/_output/debug/edit_page.html
$I->makeHtmlSnapshot();
// saved to: tests/_output/debug/2017-05-26_14-24-11_4b3403665fea6.html

makeScreenshot

Takes a screenshot of the current window and saves it to tests/_output/debug.

<?php
$I->amOnPage('/user/edit');
$I->makeScreenshot('edit_page');
// saved to: tests/_output/debug/edit_page.png
$I->makeScreenshot();
// saved to: tests/_output/debug/2017-05-26_14-24-11_4b3403665fea6.png

maximizeWindow

Maximizes the current window.

moveBack

Moves back in history.

moveForward

Moves forward in history.

moveMouseOver

Move mouse over the first element matched by the given locator. If the first parameter null then the page is used. If the second and third parameters are given, then the mouse is moved to an offset of the element’s top-left corner. Otherwise, the mouse is moved to the center of the element.

<?php
$I->moveMouseOver(['css' => '.checkout']);
$I->moveMouseOver(null, 20, 50);
$I->moveMouseOver(['css' => '.checkout'], 20, 50);
  • param null|string|array|WebDriverBy $cssOrXPath css or xpath of the web element @throws ElementNotFound

openNewTab

Opens a new browser tab and switches to it.

<?php
$I->openNewTab();

The tab is opened with JavaScript’s window.open(), which means:

  • Some ad-blockers might restrict it.
  • The sessionStorage is copied to the new tab (contrary to a tab that was manually opened by the user)

performOn

Waits for element and runs a sequence of actions inside its context. Actions can be defined with array, callback, or Codeception\Util\ActionSequence instance.

Actions as array are recommended for simple to combine “waitForElement” with assertions; waitForElement($el) and see('text', $el) can be simplified to:

<?php
$I->performOn($el, ['see' => 'text']);

List of actions can be pragmatically build using Codeception\Util\ActionSequence:

<?php
$I->performOn('.model', ActionSequence::build()
    ->see('Warning')
    ->see('Are you sure you want to delete this?')
    ->click('Yes')
);

Actions executed from array or ActionSequence will print debug output for actions, and adds an action name to exception on failure.

Whenever you need to define more actions a callback can be used. A WebDriver module is passed for argument:

<?php
$I->performOn('.rememberMe', function (WebDriver $I) {
     $I->see('Remember me next time');
     $I->seeElement('#LoginForm_rememberMe');
     $I->dontSee('Login');
});

In 3rd argument you can set number a seconds to wait for element to appear

  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $element
  • param callable|array|ActionSequence $actions

pressKey

Presses the given key on the given element. To specify a character and modifier (e.g. Ctrl, Alt, Shift, Meta), pass an array for $char with the modifier as the first element and the character as the second. For special keys, use the constants from Facebook\WebDriver\WebDriverKeys.

<?php
// <input id="page" value="old" />
$I->pressKey('#page','a'); // => olda
$I->pressKey('#page',array('ctrl','a'),'new'); //=> new
$I->pressKey('#page',array('shift','111'),'1','x'); //=> old!!!1x
$I->pressKey('descendant-or-self::*[@id='page']','u'); //=> oldu
$I->pressKey('#name', array('ctrl', 'a'), \Facebook\WebDriver\WebDriverKeys::DELETE); //=>''
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $element @param array<string|string[]>$chars Can be char or array with modifier. You can provide several chars. @throws ElementNotFound

reloadPage

Reloads the current page.

resetCookie

Unsets cookie with the given name. You can set additional cookie params like domain, path in array passed as last argument.

  • return mixed|void

resizeWindow

Resize the current window.

<?php
$I->resizeWindow(800, 600);

saveSessionSnapshot

Saves current cookies into named snapshot in order to restore them in other tests This is useful to save session state between tests. For example, if user needs log in to site for each test this scenario can be executed once while other tests can just restore saved cookies.

<?php
// inside AcceptanceTester class:

public function login()
{
     // if snapshot exists - skipping login
     if ($I->loadSessionSnapshot('login')) return;

     // logging in
     $I->amOnPage('/login');
     $I->fillField('name', 'jon');
     $I->fillField('password', '123345');
     $I->click('Login');

     // saving snapshot
     $I->saveSessionSnapshot('login');
}

scrollTo

Move to the middle of the given element matched by the given locator. Extra shift, calculated from the top-left corner of the element, can be set by passing $offsetX and $offsetY parameters.

<?php
$I->scrollTo(['css' => '.checkout'], 20, 50);
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $selector

see

Checks that the current page contains the given string (case insensitive).

You can specify a specific HTML element (via CSS or XPath) as the second parameter to only search within that element.

<?php
$I->see('Logout');                        // I can suppose user is logged in
$I->see('Sign Up', 'h1');                 // I can suppose it's a signup page
$I->see('Sign Up', '//body/h1');          // with XPath
$I->see('Sign Up', ['css' => 'body h1']); // with strict CSS locator

Note that the search is done after stripping all HTML tags from the body, so $I->see('strong') will return true for strings like:

  • <p>I am Stronger than thou</p>
  • <script>document.createElement('strong');</script>

But will not be true for strings like:

  • <strong>Home</strong>
  • <div class="strong">Home</strong>
  • <!-- strong -->

For checking the raw source code, use seeInSource().

  • param array|string $selector optional

seeCheckboxIsChecked

Checks that the specified checkbox is checked.

<?php
$I->seeCheckboxIsChecked('#agree'); // I suppose user agreed to terms
$I->seeCheckboxIsChecked('#signup_form input[type=checkbox]'); // I suppose user agreed to terms, If there is only one checkbox in form.
$I->seeCheckboxIsChecked('//form/input[@type=checkbox and @name=agree]');

seeCookie

Checks that a cookie with the given name is set. You can set additional cookie params like domain, path as array passed in last argument.

<?php
$I->seeCookie('PHPSESSID');
  • return mixed|void

seeCurrentUrlEquals

Checks that the current URL is equal to the given string. Unlike seeInCurrentUrl, this only matches the full URL.

<?php
// to match root url
$I->seeCurrentUrlEquals('/');

seeCurrentUrlMatches

Checks that the current URL matches the given regular expression.

<?php
// to match root url
$I->seeCurrentUrlMatches('~^/users/(\d+)~');

seeElement

Checks that the given element exists on the page and is visible. You can also specify expected attributes of this element.

<?php
$I->seeElement('.error');
$I->seeElement('//form/input[1]');
$I->seeElement('input', ['name' => 'login']);
$I->seeElement('input', ['value' => '123456']);

// strict locator in first arg, attributes in second
$I->seeElement(['css' => 'form input'], ['name' => 'login']);

seeElementInDOM

Checks that the given element exists on the page, even it is invisible.

<?php
$I->seeElementInDOM('//form/input[type=hidden]');
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $selector

seeInCurrentUrl

Checks that current URI contains the given string.

<?php
// to match: /home/dashboard
$I->seeInCurrentUrl('home');
// to match: /users/1
$I->seeInCurrentUrl('/users/');

seeInField

Checks that the given input field or textarea equals (i.e. not just contains) the given value. Fields are matched by label text, the “name” attribute, CSS, or XPath.

<?php
$I->seeInField('Body','Type your comment here');
$I->seeInField('form textarea[name=body]','Type your comment here');
$I->seeInField('form input[type=hidden]','hidden_value');
$I->seeInField('#searchform input','Search');
$I->seeInField('//form/*[@name=search]','Search');
$I->seeInField(['name' => 'search'], 'Search');
  • param string|array $field

seeInFormFields

Checks if the array of form parameters (name => value) are set on the form matched with the passed selector.

<?php
$I->seeInFormFields('form[name=myform]', [
     'input1' => 'value',
     'input2' => 'other value',
]);

For multi-select elements, or to check values of multiple elements with the same name, an array may be passed:

<?php
$I->seeInFormFields('.form-class', [
     'multiselect' => [
         'value1',
         'value2',
     ],
     'checkbox[]' => [
         'a checked value',
         'another checked value',
     ],
]);

Additionally, checkbox values can be checked with a boolean.

<?php
$I->seeInFormFields('#form-id', [
     'checkbox1' => true,        // passes if checked
     'checkbox2' => false,       // passes if unchecked
]);

Pair this with submitForm for quick testing magic.

<?php
$form = [
     'field1' => 'value',
     'field2' => 'another value',
     'checkbox1' => true,
     // ...
];
$I->submitForm('//form[@id=my-form]', string $form, 'submitButton');
// $I->amOnPage('/path/to/form-page') may be needed
$I->seeInFormFields('//form[@id=my-form]', string $form);

seeInPageSource

Checks that the page source contains the given string.

<?php
$I->seeInPageSource('<link rel="apple-touch-icon"');

seeInPopup

Checks that the active JavaScript popup, as created by window.alert|window.confirm|window.prompt, contains the given string.

@throws ModuleException

seeInSource

Checks that the current page contains the given string in its raw source code.

<?php
$I->seeInSource('<h1>Green eggs &amp; ham</h1>');

seeInTitle

Checks that the page title contains the given string.

<?php
$I->seeInTitle('Blog - Post #1');
  • return mixed|void

Checks that there’s a link with the specified text. Give a full URL as the second parameter to match links with that exact URL.

<?php
$I->seeLink('Logout'); // matches <a href="#">Logout</a>
$I->seeLink('Logout','/logout'); // matches <a href="/logout">Logout</a>

seeNumberOfElements

Checks that there are a certain number of elements matched by the given locator on the page.

<?php
$I->seeNumberOfElements('tr', 10);
$I->seeNumberOfElements('tr', [0,10]); // between 0 and 10 elements
  • param int|int[] $expected

seeNumberOfElementsInDOM

  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $selector
  • param int|array $expected @throws ModuleException

seeNumberOfTabs

Checks current number of opened tabs

<?php
$I->seeNumberOfTabs(2);

seeOptionIsSelected

Checks that the given option is selected.

<?php
$I->seeOptionIsSelected('#form input[name=payment]', 'Visa');
  • return mixed|void

selectOption

Selects an option in a select tag or in radio button group.

<?php
$I->selectOption('form select[name=account]', 'Premium');
$I->selectOption('form input[name=payment]', 'Monthly');
$I->selectOption('//form/select[@name=account]', 'Monthly');

Provide an array for the second argument to select multiple options:

<?php
$I->selectOption('Which OS do you use?', array('Windows','Linux'));

Or provide an associative array for the second argument to specifically define which selection method should be used:

<?php
$I->selectOption('Which OS do you use?', array('text' => 'Windows')); // Only search by text 'Windows'
$I->selectOption('Which OS do you use?', array('value' => 'windows')); // Only search by value 'windows'

setCookie

Sets a cookie with the given name and value. You can set additional cookie params like domain, path, expires, secure in array passed as last argument.

<?php
$I->setCookie('PHPSESSID', 'el4ukv0kqbvoirg7nkp4dncpk3');
  • return mixed|void

submitForm

Submits the given form on the page, optionally with the given form values. Give the form fields values as an array. Note that hidden fields can’t be accessed.

Skipped fields will be filled by their values from the page. You don’t need to click the ‘Submit’ button afterwards. This command itself triggers the request to form’s action.

You can optionally specify what button’s value to include in the request with the last parameter as an alternative to explicitly setting its value in the second parameter, as button values are not otherwise included in the request.

Examples:

<?php
$I->submitForm('#login', [
    'login' => 'davert',
    'password' => '123456'
]);
// or
$I->submitForm('#login', [
    'login' => 'davert',
    'password' => '123456'
], 'submitButtonName');

For example, given this sample “Sign Up” form:

<form action="/sign_up">
    Login:
    <input type="text" name="user[login]" /><br/>
    Password:
    <input type="password" name="user[password]" /><br/>
    Do you agree to our terms?
    <input type="checkbox" name="user[agree]" /><br/>
    Select pricing plan:
    <select name="plan">
        <option value="1">Free</option>
        <option value="2" selected="selected">Paid</option>
    </select>
    <input type="submit" name="submitButton" value="Submit" />
</form>

You could write the following to submit it:

<?php
$I->submitForm(
    '#userForm',
    [
        'user[login]' => 'Davert',
        'user[password]' => '123456',
        'user[agree]' => true
    ],
    'submitButton'
);

Note that “2” will be the submitted value for the “plan” field, as it is the selected option.

Also note that this differs from PhpBrowser, in that

'user' => [ 'login' => 'Davert' ]

is not supported at the moment. Named array keys must be included in the name as above.

Pair this with seeInFormFields for quick testing magic.

<?php
$form = [
     'field1' => 'value',
     'field2' => 'another value',
     'checkbox1' => true,
     // ...
];
$I->submitForm('//form[@id=my-form]', $form, 'submitButton');
// $I->amOnPage('/path/to/form-page') may be needed
$I->seeInFormFields('//form[@id=my-form]', $form);

Parameter values must be set to arrays for multiple input fields of the same name, or multi-select combo boxes. For checkboxes, either the string value can be used, or boolean values which will be replaced by the checkbox’s value in the DOM.

<?php
$I->submitForm('#my-form', [
     'field1' => 'value',
     'checkbox' => [
         'value of first checkbox',
         'value of second checkbox',
     ],
     'otherCheckboxes' => [
         true,
         false,
         false,
     ],
     'multiselect' => [
         'first option value',
         'second option value',
     ]
]);

Mixing string and boolean values for a checkbox’s value is not supported and may produce unexpected results.

Field names ending in “[]” must be passed without the trailing square bracket characters, and must contain an array for its value. This allows submitting multiple values with the same name, consider:

$I->submitForm('#my-form', [
    'field[]' => 'value',
    'field[]' => 'another value', // 'field[]' is already a defined key
]);

The solution is to pass an array value:

// this way both values are submitted
$I->submitForm('#my-form', [
    'field' => [
        'value',
        'another value',
    ]
]);

The $button parameter can be either a string, an array or an instance of Facebook\WebDriver\WebDriverBy. When it is a string, the button will be found by its “name” attribute. If $button is an array then it will be treated as a strict selector and a WebDriverBy will be used verbatim.

For example, given the following HTML:

<input type="submit" name="submitButton" value="Submit" />

$button could be any one of the following:

  • ‘submitButton’
  • [‘name’ => ‘submitButton’]
  • WebDriverBy::name(‘submitButton’)

  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $selector
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy|null $button

switchToFrame

Switch to another frame on the page.

Example:

<frame name="another_frame" id="fr1" src="https://example.com">
<?php
# switch to frame by name
$I->switchToFrame("another_frame");
# switch to frame by CSS or XPath
$I->switchToFrame("#fr1");
# switch to parent page
$I->switchToFrame();
  • param string|null $locator (name, CSS or XPath)

switchToIFrame

Switch to another iframe on the page.

Example:

<iframe name="another_frame" id="fr1" src="https://example.com">
<?php
# switch to iframe by name
$I->switchToIFrame("another_frame");
# switch to iframe by CSS or XPath
$I->switchToIFrame("#fr1");
# switch to parent page
$I->switchToIFrame();
  • param string|null $locator (name, CSS or XPath)

switchToNextTab

Switches to next browser tab. An offset can be specified.

<?php
// switch to next tab
$I->switchToNextTab();
// switch to 2nd next tab
$I->switchToNextTab(2);

switchToPreviousTab

Switches to previous browser tab. An offset can be specified.

<?php
// switch to previous tab
$I->switchToPreviousTab();
// switch to 2nd previous tab
$I->switchToPreviousTab(2);

switchToWindow

Switch to another window identified by name.

The window can only be identified by name. If the $name parameter is blank, the parent window will be used.

Example:

<input type="button" value="Open window" onclick="window.open('https://example.com', 'another_window')">
<?php
$I->click("Open window");
# switch to another window
$I->switchToWindow("another_window");
# switch to parent window
$I->switchToWindow();

If the window has no name, match it by switching to next active tab using switchToNextTab method.

Or use native Selenium functions to get access to all opened windows:

<?php
$I->executeInSelenium(function (\Facebook\WebDriver\Remote\RemoteWebDriver $webdriver) {
     $handles=$webdriver->getWindowHandles();
     $last_window = end($handles);
     $webdriver->switchTo()->window($last_window);
});

type

Type in characters on active element. With a second parameter you can specify delay between key presses.

<?php
// activate input element
$I->click('#input');

// type text in active element
$I->type('Hello world');

// type text with a 1sec delay between chars
$I->type('Hello World', 1);

This might be useful when you an input reacts to typing and you need to slow it down to emulate human behavior. For instance, this is how Credit Card fields can be filled in.

  • param int $delay [sec]

typeInPopup

Enters text into a native JavaScript prompt popup, as created by window.prompt.

@throws ModuleException

uncheckOption

Unticks a checkbox.

<?php
$I->uncheckOption('#notify');

unselectOption

Unselect an option in the given select box.

  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $select
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $option

wait

Wait for $timeout seconds.

  • param int|float $timeout secs @throws TestRuntimeException

waitForElement

Waits up to $timeout seconds for an element to appear on the page. If the element doesn’t appear, a timeout exception is thrown.

<?php
$I->waitForElement('#agree_button', 30); // secs
$I->click('#agree_button');
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $element
  • param int $timeout seconds @throws Exception

waitForElementChange

Waits up to $timeout seconds for the given element to change. Element “change” is determined by a callback function which is called repeatedly until the return value evaluates to true.

<?php
use \Facebook\WebDriver\WebDriverElement
$I->waitForElementChange('#menu', function(WebDriverElement $el) {
    return $el->isDisplayed();
}, 100);
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $element @throws ElementNotFound

waitForElementClickable

Waits up to $timeout seconds for the given element to be clickable. If element doesn’t become clickable, a timeout exception is thrown.

<?php
$I->waitForElementClickable('#agree_button', 30); // secs
$I->click('#agree_button');
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $element
  • param int $timeout seconds @throws Exception

waitForElementNotVisible

Waits up to $timeout seconds for the given element to become invisible. If element stays visible, a timeout exception is thrown.

<?php
$I->waitForElementNotVisible('#agree_button', 30); // secs
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $element
  • param int $timeout seconds @throws Exception

waitForElementVisible

Waits up to $timeout seconds for the given element to be visible on the page. If element doesn’t appear, a timeout exception is thrown.

<?php
$I->waitForElementVisible('#agree_button', 30); // secs
$I->click('#agree_button');
  • param string|array|WebDriverBy $element
  • param int $timeout seconds @throws Exception

waitForJS

Executes JavaScript and waits up to $timeout seconds for it to return true.

In this example we will wait up to 60 seconds for all jQuery AJAX requests to finish.

<?php
$I->waitForJS("return $.active == 0;", 60);
  • param int $timeout seconds

waitForText

Waits up to $timeout seconds for the given string to appear on the page.

Can also be passed a selector to search in, be as specific as possible when using selectors. waitForText() will only watch the first instance of the matching selector / text provided. If the given text doesn’t appear, a timeout exception is thrown.

<?php
$I->waitForText('foo', 30); // secs
$I->waitForText('foo', 30, '.title'); // secs
  • param int $timeout seconds
  • param null|string|array|WebDriverBy $selector @throws Exception

 

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