Codeception uses modularity to create a comfortable testing environment for every test suite you write. Modules allow you to choose the actions and assertions that can be performed in tests.
All actions and assertions that can be performed by the Actor object in a class are defined in modules. It might look like Codeception limits you in testing, but that’s not true. You can extend the testing suite with your own actions and assertions, by writing them into a custom module, called a Helper. We will get back to this later in this chapter, but for now let’s look at the following test:
It can operate with different entities: the web page can be loaded with the PhpBrowser module, the database assertion uses the Db module, and the file state can be checked with the Filesystem module.
Modules are attached to Actor classes in the suite config.
For example, in
tests/acceptance.suite.yml we should see:
The AcceptanceTester class has its methods defined in modules.
Let’s see what’s inside the
AcceptanceTester class, which is located inside the
The most important part is the
_generated\AcceptanceTesterActions trait, which is used as a proxy for enabled modules.
It knows which module executes which action and passes parameters into it.
This trait was created by running
codecept build and is regenerated each time module or configuration changes.
Use actor classes to set common actions which can be used accross a suite.
For acceptance and functional testing, we will not only need to have common actions being reused across different tests, we should have buttons, links and form fields being reused as well. For those cases we need to implement the PageObject pattern, which is widely used by test automation engineers. The PageObject pattern represents a web page as a class and the DOM elements on that page as its properties, and some basic interactions as its methods. PageObjects are very important when you are developing a flexible architecture of your acceptance or functional tests. Do not hard-code complex CSS or XPath locators in your tests but rather move them into PageObject classes.
Codeception can generate a PageObject class for you with command:
It is recommended to use page objects for acceptance testing only
This will create a
Login class in
The basic PageObject is nothing more than an empty class with a few stubs.
It is expected that you will populate it with the UI locators of a page it represents. Locators can be added as public properties:
But let’s move further. The PageObject concept specifies that the methods for the page interaction should also be stored in a PageObject class.
Let’s define a
login method in this class:
If you specify which object you need for a test, Codeception will try to create it using the dependency injection container. In the case of a PageObject you should declare a class as a parameter for a test method:
The dependency injection container can construct any object that requires any known class type.
AcceptanceTester, and so it was injected into
and PageObject was created and passed into method arguments. You should explicitly specify
the types of required objects for Codeception to know what objects should be created for a test.
Dependency Injection will be described in the next chapter.
StepObjects are great if you need some common functionality for a group of tests. Let’s say you are going to test an admin area of a site. You probably won’t need the same actions from the admin area while testing the front end, so it’s a good idea to move these admin-specific tests into their own class. We call such a classes StepObjects.
Lets create an Admin StepObject with the generator:
You can supply optional action names. Enter one at a time, followed by a newline. End with an empty line to continue to StepObject creation.
This will generate a class in
/tests/_support/Step/Acceptance/Admin.php similar to this:
As you see, this class is very simple. It extends the
meaning it can access all the methods and properties of
loginAsAdmin method may be implemented like this:
StepObject can be instantiated automatically when used inside the Cest format:
If you have a complex interaction scenario, you may use several step objects in one test. If you feel like adding too many actions into your Actor class (which is AcceptanceTester in this case) consider moving some of them into separate StepObjects.
Use StepObjects when you have multiple areas of applications or multiple roles.
There are lots of ways to create reusable and readable tests. Group common actions together
and move them to an Actor class or StepObjects. Move CSS and XPath locators into PageObjects.
Write your custom actions and assertions in Helpers.
Scenario-driven tests should not contain anything more complex than
Following this approach will allow you to keep your tests clean, readable, stable and make them easy to maintain.